Extending plastid

Plastid defines the following entry points to enable users to write plug-in functions that can be accessed from the command line:

Entry point Used for
plastid.mapping_rules Adding new mapping rules to plastid’s command-line scripts.
plastid.mapping_options Adding command-line options used by new mapping rules.

For plastid to discover your plug-in, your plug-in must be registered with the system. Registration requires some packaging, which isn’t too painful. Packaging is discussed in the following sections:

Setting up the folder

First, create a folder with structure similar to the following:


Adjust the filenames to suit your project.

Writing command-line options for mapping rules

Mapping rules

We assume you have written mapping rules as described in Writing new mapping functions. plastid needs some metadata to use them. This is specified in a dictionary that defines at least bamfunc or bowtiefunc. All of the remaining keys are optional:

Key Value type Value
name str

Overrides the command-line name of mapping rule defined in setup.py. I.e. - the flag --name will be the command-line argument that invokes the rule

Must not contain spaces, dashes, or special characters. Underscores are o

bamfunc Function Mapping function for alignments in BAM format
bowtiefunc Function Mapping function for alignments in bowtie format
help str Command-line help for the mapping function. Should describe what the function does, and which command-line arguments affect its behavior (e.g. --offset, --nibble or something added in Additional parameters for mapping rules)

If bowtiefunc or bamfunc are unspecified or set to None, plastid will assume the mapping function is not implemented for the corresponding type. Typically, users would only write a function for mapping BAM files.

We’ll suppose that all of our functions are specified in my_project/map_rules.py as described above. The contents of map_rules.py might then look something like this:

#!/usr/bin/env python

def rule1_for_bowtie_files(alignment,args=None):
    # calculate position(s) where a single aliignment maps
    # and the value to place at each position
    # the parsed command-line arguments will be passed
    # as an argparse.Namespace object

    return position_value_tuples

def rule1_for_BAM_files(alignments,segment,args=args):
    # calculate positions where a list of alignments map,
    # and a vector of values at each position
    # again, args is an argparse.Namespace object
    # from the command-line args

    return reads_out, count_array

def rule2_for_BAM_files_only(alignments,segment,args=args):
    # calculate positions where a list of alignments map,
    # and a vector of values at each position

    # do something with a command-line argument
    my_option = args.new_option
    if my_option == "":

    return reads_out, count_array

rule1_info = {
    "name"       : 'rule1',
    "bamfunc"    : rule1_for_BAM_files,
    "bowtiefunc" : rule1_for_bowtie_files,
    "help"       : "Some help text for rule 1."

rule2_info = {
    "name"       : 'rule2',
    "bamfunc"    : rule2_for_BAM_files_only,
    "help"       : "Some help text. Rule 2's behavior is modified by the option `--new_option`"

rule1 is defined for both BAM and bowtie files. rule2 is defined only for BAM files, and it uses the command-line option --new_option, which we define below in Additional parameters for mapping rules.

Additional parameters for mapping rules

Additional command-line parameters are also specified as dictionaries. In these, the keys and values can be any valid parameters for argparse.ArgumentParser.add_argument(). Each dictionary should additionally define a key called name, whose value will be used as the name of the command-line argument. For example, we might add the following lines to my_project/map_rules.py:

param1 = {
    "name"  : "new_option",
    "type"  : int,
    "nargs" : 2,
    "help"  : "Some help text for --new_option",
    "metavar" : "N",

That’s it!

Writing setup.py

Having written the mapping functions and made dictionaries describing them, we need to write package metadata so that plastid can find the new functions. All of this information goes into setup.py.

setup.py should everything needed to set up and install your package. For more information see the documentation for setuptools and / or distutils. setup.py should minimally contain the following:

#/usr/bin/env python
from setuptools import setup, find_packages

# list all the rules we want to include
# syntax is:
#    rule_name = path.to.rule:rule_info_dictionary"
rules = [
    "rule1 = my_project.rules:rule1_info",
    "rule2 = my_project.rules:rule2_info",

# list any extra arguments we want to include
# syntax is:
#    argument_name = path.to.rule:arg_info_dictionary"
rule_options = [
    "new_option = my_project.rules:param1",

    # root level name of package
    name = "my_project",

    # tell setup() that `rules` and `rule_options` specify mapping
    # ruls and arguments for plastid:
    entry_points = {
        "plastid.mapping_rules"   : rules,
        "plastid.mapping_options" : rule_options,

    setup_requires = ['plastid>=0.4.4'],
    packages = find_packages(),

    # plus any other arguments (e.g. package author, description)
    # to ``setup``.


That’s the last piece.

Installing the new mapping rules

Installation is the final step. Enter the folder containing setup.py. Then, to install your new mapping rules, type:

$ python setup.py install [--user]

Or, if you plan to keep developing your mapping rules, and want plastid to be aware of these changes instantly:

$ python setup.py develop --user

To test your installation, check command-line help from a script that uses mapping rules (e.g. make_wiggle):

$ make-wiggle --help

If the installation proceeded correctly you should see something like this:

# rest of command line help above

alignment mapping options (BAM & bowtie files only):
  For BAM or bowtie files, one of the mutually exclusive read mapping choices
  is required:

  --fiveprime_variable  Map read alignment to a variable offset from 5'
                        position of read, with offset determined by read
                        length. Requires `--offset` below
  --fiveprime           Map read alignment to 5' position.
  --threeprime          Map read alignment to 3' position
  --center              Subtract N positions from each end of read, and add
                        1/(length-N), to each remaining position, where N is
                        specified by `--nibble`
  --rule2               Some help text. Rule 2's behavior is modified by the
                        option `--new_option`
  --rule1               Some help text for rule 1.

  The remaining arguments are optional and affect the behavior of specific
  mapping rules:

  --offset OFFSET       For `--fiveprime` or `--threeprime`, provide an
                        integer representing the offset into the read,
                        starting from either the 5' or 3' end, at which data
                        should be plotted. For `--fiveprime_variable`, provide
                        the filename of a two-column tab-delimited text file,
                        in which first column represents read length or the
                        special keyword `'default'`, and the second column
                        represents the offset from the five prime end of that
                        read length at which the read should be mapped.
  --nibble N            For use with `--center` only. nt to remove from each
                        end of read before mapping (Default: 0)
  --new_option N N      Some help text for --new_option

 # remaining command-line help below

If the new mapping rule and command-line arguments are listed, you are ready.

See also